Many of Amazon Redshift Customers
are wondering if they can Stop / Start their Redshift Cluster as many of other
AWS instances and services to reduce incurring cost. After all idea here is
that with cloud you pay for only what you use. And it true for many AWS
services like RDS instances and even Snowflake
( Redshift competitor).
When it comes to Redshift clusters,
it’s not straight forward to simply stop and start clusters. It’s not because Amazon
is deliberately trying to make it hard for customer to stop/start their clusters,
basically Redshift architecture simply won’t allow this functionally without taking
Basically, Redshift uses local storages
on compute nodes to store data in slices and if shut them down, you will not
release compute/storage for other cloud customers. Hence AWS cannot provide
this functionally without incurring any charges. Amazon is releasing new
features for Redshift on Regular bases and you might see this behavior change
You can still shutdown Redshift instances
to reduce incurring charges if you are using ON-Demand clusters by using
following steps. Basically, you will need to take a snapshot and delete the
cluster then restore you cluster from snapshot when you need it back online.
1. From AWS Console, select the cluster you want to stop
2. Drop down the “Cluster” menu and select “Delete”
3. Enter the Snapshot name; I use the same name as the
cluster I’m deleting
1. In the Redshift Snapshots
select the snapshot of the cluster you want to restore
2. Drop down the “Actions” menu,
and select “Restore From Snapshot”
3. Complete the configuration
details, and click the “Restore” button at the bottom right
You organization might not be like the idea of delete a production cluster with sensitive data just to safe cost.
If you looking to reduce cost with Redshift, it best to opt of reserve nodes as they are offered on significantly lower cost vs. on-demand cluster nodes.
It might take 30 mins to an hour to stop/start Redshift Cluster using snapshots for terabyte database.
Snowflake might be a better option for customers with on-demand workload , because you can easily shutdown and start Snowflake clusters in seconds without deleting any data as it using S3 buckets to store data.
Many organizations are looking into migrating their applications to Oracle cloud and with time their numbers are only going to be increased. There are many ways to migrate your application to Oracle cloud, but they all have one common important phase called application discovery. Application discovery is a process where you collect in-depth information about your source environment for a purpose of Cloud migration. There is a lot already published about public cloud migrations, but very little information is available about application discovery process. Cloud application discovery process is one of the most important initial phases for any cloud migration. This phase will not only help you see if your application is a good fit for public cloud, it will also help you reduce road blocks and technical issues during the actual migration. If you have a complete detailed discovery of your application before the migration, it will also help you plan migration project and reduce post migration issues.
General Application Questions: –
Here are some sample questions that
you can ask during your initial contact with application team.
is the name & version of the application?
are the IT owners of target application?
type of database and version used by this application?
is the technical subject matter expert for this application?
this a vendor or in-house build application?
this application use or mange compliance data like PCI or HIPPA?
you provide us any architectural documents for this application?
this application have a DR or load balance solution built-in?
there a middleware component to this application (WebLogic or WebSphere)?
are the business users and owner of this application?
It’s important to provide
background to the target audience like explaining reason for this contact. This
initial contact can lead to very important feedback like “This application is
already retired” or “This application can never move to cloud for ABC reasons”.
Ideally, you will use collected information and architectural documents to get
ready for the deep dive into the upcoming discovery steps.
Detail Application Questions:
Here are examples of some details that you can gather for
each section of your detail application discovery phase:
Is there a middle component of application? If yes, detail.
Is there a DR for this application? If yes, detail.
Is there a Load balance component to this application? If yes, detail.
Is there a dependency with other applications?
If yes, detail.
Is this an internal or customer facing
Is this application part of group maintenance
window? If yes, detail.
Is this application sensitive to network
bandwidth? Large data transfer?
What are Firewall rules needed for this
there any large amount of data transfer happening to or from the application?
What type of database/version is used by the application?
What is the size and growth rate of application database?
What is the RPO/RTO for the database?
Is this a vendor application with support
contract in-place? If yes, detail
Who is supporting this application? what are
Is this application certified to run from Oracle
How much total storage is used by target
What type of storage used by target application?
NFS, Flash, SAN
Is IOP/s required by this application or
How many hosts use this application and what are
What are the OS types used by target
Can we upgrade or change underlying operating
system if not available in Oracle Cloud?
Risks / Issues:
Is there a compliance requirement for this
Do you need to re-architect or make code changes
for Cloud migration?
Is there a risk to migrate application from
physical to virtual hosts?
I would like to use this blog to point out some key differentiators for Oracle Big Data Cloud offering. Oracle’s Big Data Cloud is designed for the enterprises using open source technologies like Apache Spark and Apache Hadoop. It utilizes Oracle’s Infrastructure Cloud Services to deliver a managed, secure, elastic and integrated platform for all Big Data Workloads.
Oracle Big Data Cloud offering is
designed with multiple open source components, and this makes it an ideal big
data platform for companies who are looking to adopt open source technologies.
This offering provides the customer a choice of opening source Big Data
technology with unlimited scalability and highly available platform. Oracle Big
Data Cloud is integrated with Oracle’s IaaS and PaaS solutions, giving you an
opportunity to spend your resources and time developing new technologies versus
wasting time setting up the environment to analyze the data.
Oracle Big Data Cloud offers a simple but robust solution to
Big Data customers. You can spin up a new Apache Hadoop or Apache Spark Cluster
or an entire Big Data Analytics stack in minutes. Similarly, you can scale up
or down manually or automatically based on KPI based policies. You can also
launch as many clusters as you need to analyze the data. Oracle Big data cloud
also offers Centralized Identity and Access management through Identity Cloud
Service. Finally, Oracle Big Data Cloud support elasticity at three levels of
solution, for example:
• Cluster Elasticity: Scale out/in, up/ down based on
• Storage Elasticity: Scale the storage tier independently
from the compute tier
• Compute Elasticity: Choose from a variety of compute
shapes depending on the workload
As per Oracle, Oracle Big Data Cloud is
integrated within the Oracle Identity Cloud Service to provide centralized way
of enabling user-access to the service and robust auditing of user access.
Kerberized clusters are integrated with Oracle’s central Identity Store to
provide strong authentication to all the cluster’s services. Oracle Big Data
Cloud protects data-in-motion and data-at-rest through encryption. All service
lifecycle as well as service consumption REST calls to the service are also
protected through HTTPS. Software-defined Networking enables the customers of
Oracle Big Data Cloud to have fine grained control over the network security.
Customers are able to define VPN, control which ports get exposed as well as
white-list IPs through self-service.
Hardware & network profiling is
another important phase of application discovery process regardless of end goal,
which can be used for public cloud migration or data center migration. It
includes capturing statistics about hardware usage like CPU utilization, memory
usage, network bandwidth, data transfer and IOPS. Capturing hardware statistics are important
since it will be used for capacity planning and provisioning hardware resources
to Oracle public cloud for target application. Any miscalculation on this part
can lead to under provisioning of hardware resources in Oracle Public cloud
which can cause the application to perform poorly after migration.
Hardware statistics can be
gathered using many methods depending on the operating systems and existing
monitoring tools. Many organizations have already deployed robust monitoring
and alerting tools like Oracle Enterprise Manager, OS watcher to monitor their
systems. You should be able to gather most of the required information from existing
reports and logs. Additionally, you can also install user define shell or
Oracle PL/SQL scripts to gather rest of the information. One also should not
ignore the importance of firewall, gathering network traffic and firewall
information as they are crucial in developing a secured network in Oracle cloud
Application profiling is an important phase for Oracle cloud migration , it’s design to gather in-depth information about the target application. Based on the information that is collected during the initial contacts, you can initiate application profiling phase. Information gathered during this phase can be used for migration planning and provisioning hardware resources for Oracle public cloud. This phase will also help you determine if all the application components are available in Oracle public cloud like load balancer, remote DR solution and storage replication. Depending on the application type, you might need to dig into the application code to see if that can be fork lifted to Oracle public cloud without making any changes, as sometimes application code contains hostnames and IP addresses. Similarly, understanding application logic and data set can be equality import for upcoming migration. If target application ingests or provides huge amount of data to other applications in the organization, this can present as a challenge for migration because of network bandwidth and transfer charges. Additionally, if this application contains PCI or HIPPA compliance related data, this will require more scrutiny and approvals from compliance department.
It’s also important to gather all
test scripts for target application. Review test scripts to determine if they
can be used during the migration for testing application performance and
functionality. If test scripts are not available or are incomplete, this should
be marked as a risk for migration to Oracle cloud. Finally, capture application
performance statistics for all critical processes and queries so they can be
used as baseline for upcoming migration.
There are many profiling tools
available in the market now a days but here is the list some Oracle profiling
tools you can use for application and data profiling based on your needs.
Many organizations are looking into
migrating their applications to Oracle cloud and with time their numbers are
only going to be increased. There are many ways to migrate your application to Oracle
cloud, but they all have one common important phase called application
discovery. Application discovery is a process where you collect in-depth
information about your source environment for a purpose of Cloud migration. There
is a lot already published about public cloud migrations but very little
information is available about application discovery process. Cloud application
discovery process is one of the most important initial phases for any cloud migration.
This phase will not only help you see if your application is a good fit for public
cloud, it will also help you reduce road blocks and technical issues during the
actual migration. If you have a complete detailed discovery of your application
before the migration, it will also help you plan migration project and reduce
post migration issues.
As mentioned earlier, application
discovery process involves gathering detailed information about the target
application. This may include conducting interviews with application
users & developers, application & data profiling and hardware &
network profiling. Application discovery process usually start with
interviewing technical and business users to help them understand application functionality,
logic and flow of the target application. You can also start application
profiling while you are conducting interviews, this process will involve using
many techniques and tools to gather application components, dependencies, security,
data and compliance information about the target environment. Similarly, you
will need to profile existing hardware and network to map out target
environments to services and resources available in Oracle public cloud. It’s
important to note that Oracle Public cloud is enterprise cloud offering many
application components as a platform for services like Load Balancer, DBaaS,
GoldenGate, Business intelligence etc. I will recommend that you analyze and
compare all your application components to see if you can replace any of your
application component with Oracle cloud service to decrease the cost and
It is also important to
understand that there are few application discovery tools offered by cloud
vendors which can facilitate application discovery process. But we found that
those tools were not helpful in many situations since very few customers will
let you connect to their production systems using those tools. Keeping that in
mind, this article is mostly focused on manual process and steps to complete
application discovery process while referencing many Oracle and third-party
tools as needed. Additionally, application discovery process is almost the same
for any public cloud migration, but this article will focus on Oracle public
Many of you must be wondering why we need a detailed discovery process for Oracle cloud migration. Why not just do a Proof of Concept (POC) for the target application to assess feasibility of Oracle cloud migration and iron out migration issues along the way. Based on my experience, POC for Oracle cloud migration will only work for one or two applications, this approach will not work if you are looking to migrate a group of applications. Additionally, POC will require more upfront cost and resources versus application discovery process. Finally, it will take longer to discover if target application is a good fit for Oracle public cloud through POC versus application discovery process.
I cannot overstate the importance
of performing detail application discovery for Oracle cloud migration. Application discovery is crucial to migrate
all the applications, but level of detail can vary based on criticality of the
application. There are many critical phases of Oracle cloud migration like
provisioning, testing and migration, which will depend on detailed application
discovery process. For example, you will not be able to provision Oracle cloud
environment if you have not collected hardware and network information for the
target application. Secondly, you will not able to identify any road blocks to
the migration beforehand and that can lead to a waste of capital or even failed
As you know Oracle analytics is getting immense attention being the market leader in providing the analytics value in cloud marketplace. This blog will provide you with a thorough and high yield review of vision and strategy behind Oracle analytics while focusing on autonomous analytics.
As in every other aspect of life analytics is very important in making informed decisions. With the invention of autonomous analytics including machine learning and artificial intelligence, decision making, and predictive ability has been greatly enriched. Autonomous analytics works by revealing hidden patterns and making actionable insights more accessible thus empowering everyone to use data to drive every process
direct every interaction and inform every decision so that the proposed outcome
order to drive broad consumption, Oracle make it easy for everyone to interact
with information so that you can engage, analyze, and act in a way that is
natural—as in asking questions in plain language using either text or voice,
searching for answers, and receiving insights as narration. Cut through
information overload with relevant, personalized insights delivered proactively
to you in the context that makes the most sense. This is where context is the
main key as it provides access to the information that you need. Speed is
another important factor. Oracle analytics cloud can autonomously query the
data and give appropriate illustrations. The text summarizes salient points so
that you can focus on what the data really means and filter out the dissonance
that comes from different interpretations of a visualization. Natural language
generation makes the analytic experience much more conversational.
deliver deeper, more meaningful insights, Autonomous analytics can recommend
what data to analyze, how it could be augmented, and what it really means. It
can suggest key drivers and insights to guide analysis, and it can recommend
the best way to interpret data and what actions to take as a result.
Oracle is continuously striving to offer best in-class cloud solutions to their customers. Oracle MySQL Cloud Service is another example, how Oracle is the only Enterprise cloud that stands out in town offering all 3 levels (SaaS, PaaS and IaaS) of solutions in public cloud. Here are some import take-a-ways about Oracle MySQL Cloud Service.
Time to Market:
Time to market is one of the key
features of any cloud service, you can continue going with Oracle MySQL Cloud
Service in just few clicks and manage your database deployments easily using
superior tools. Oracle MySQL Cloud
Service offers manager tools to manage your database in cloud. For example,
MySQL Enterprise Backup enables online hot backups of your databases including
support of full, incremental and point-in-time recovery backups. Oracle MySQL Cloud Service also offer robust
monitoring tools like MySQL Enterprise Monitor and MySQL Query Analyzer to
continuously monitor your databases and alert you to potential problems. MySQL
Workbench provides data modeling, SQL development, and comprehensive visual
tools for database architects, developers, and DBAs. Oracle Enterprise Manager
monitors MySQL and your entire Oracle environment from a single management
Scalability has always been a
concern for opensource database in comparison to enterprise databases like
Oracle. Customers for an open source database were long looking for opensource
database offer that can provide availability and scalability of an enterprise
database like Oracle with the cost of opensource solution. With Oracle MySQL
Cloud Service, you can scale your computer resources as needed, up or down,
with Elastic Compute. You will also increase your block storage as needed for
your MSQL instance with Elastic storage. Sustain performance and scalability in
spite of ever-increasing user, query, and data loads with MySQL Thread Pool.
Hence, improve your application uptime with MySQL Replication and MySQL
Based on my experience, support for
an open source database is #1 concern for customer. Keeping that in mind,
Oracle made support a key component for Oracle MySQL Cloud Service. With Oracle
MySQL Cloud Service, you can get MySQL technical support directly from the
experts and the engineers developing the MySQL products. They’ll help you to
solve your most complex issues 24 hours a day and make the most of your MySQL
deployments. You can get a single point of contact for both cloud
infrastructure and MySQL issues. You don’t have to waste your valuable time
wondering if you’ll find the right person to give you the answers that you
Oracle public cloud offer immense
security for all its services and Oracle MySQL Cloud Service is no exception.
Integrated Oracle public cloud, Oracle MySQL Cloud Service integrates MySQL
Enterprise Edition and provides multilayered security when accessing from
Oracle Public Cloud to the data stored in MySQL. MySQL Enterprise Audit lets
you quickly and seamlessly add policy-based auditing compliance to the existing
applications. Additionally, MySQL Enterprise Encryption provides
industry-standard functionality to protect your sensitive data throughout its
life cycle. Finally, MySQL Enterprise Transparent Data Encryption provides
data-at-rest encryption and secure key management for all your security needs.
Hi All, I like to share my experience with recent database migration to Exadata Machine using Oracle Export / Import utility. Many of us used Oracle Export / Import utility for database upgrades and migrations. If you are migrating data using Data Pump with all the constraints and indexes, you will not face this issue. This issue is only related to Data Pump option Exclude / Include = Constraints.
Let me start with the reason that why would we need to copy data using data pump without constraints or indexes. When you are migration few GB of data it will not matter that you are creating and build indexes during data import. But if you are planning to migrate 10+ TB database using data pump, you want to separate data copy from indexes and constraints. Creating indexes and constraints on terabyte tables can take days since they will run without any parallelism. Hence many DBA’s and migration experts uses Data Pump SQLFILE option for indexes and constraints creation. This way we are able to create indexes in parallel mode and create constraints without validate.
Now with 12c Oracle has change exclude option and it will not import NOT NULL constraints if you exclude constraints during data import. Please review following Oracle Support note and make sure to bring NOT NULL constraints manually after the data import. Fortunately, data import with exclude constraints option still bring CHECK constraints for now.
Data Pump Import With EXCLUDE=CONSTRAINT Or INCLUDE=CONSTRAINT Is Excluding And Respectively Not Including NOT NULL Constraints (Doc ID 1930631.1)
doing a Data Pump import (impdp) in 188.8.131.52 database release with parameter
EXCLUDE=CONSTRAINT the NOT NULL constraints from source tables are not in
target tables. Sequence of steps leading to the problem:
– Data Pump export of tables with NOT NULL and referential integrity
– Data Pump import with EXCLUDE=CONSTRAINT
In source database a table has the following structure:
Name Null? Type
—————————————– ——– —————————-
ID NOT NULL NUMBER(38)
NAME NOT NULL VARCHAR2(20)
AGE NOT NULL NUMBER(38)
After import, the table structure:
Name Null? Type
ID NUMBER(38) ———————> NOT NULL
NAME VARCHAR2(20)———————> NOT
NULL Constraints ignored
AGE NUMBER(38)———————> NOT NULL
if using Data Pump import (impdp) with INCLUDE=CONSTRAINT parameter, NOT NULL
constraints are not imported.